KAJIAN HISTORIS DINAMIKA SIKAP GEREJA TERHADAP OLAHRAGA

Authors

  • Gandi Wibowo
  • Denny Andreas
  • Ivon Rahmani

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.54636/teologi.v3i1.45

Keywords:

olahraga, Istmian, Korintus, bapa gereja

Abstract

Gereja memiliki dinamika pandangan terhadap olahraga dari perspektif sejarah. Perayaan pertandingan Istmian di era Yunani dan Romawi memberi perspektif bahwa olahraga pada kultur kuno adalah bagian dari pemujaan kepada para dewa. Sekalipun demikian Rasul Paulus justru mengakomodasi pertandingan olahraga sebagai gambaran perjuangan iman orang percaya dalam pesannya kepada jemaat di Korintus. Saat itu Korintus secara reguler mengadakan pertandingan Istmian sebagai penyembahan paganistik terhadap Poseidon. Para bapa gereja memiliki pandangan pro kontra terhadap aktivitas olahraga maupun turnamen. Tetapi kemudian perubahan paradigma menjadi positif seiring surutnya pengaruh politeisme dan hellenisme dalam perayaan olahraga. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara kualitatif dengan pendekatan teologis historis. Olahraga sejatinya memberikan dampak positif bagi kesehatan fisik, melatih kerjasama dan komunikasi tim, serta membentuk pribadi yang disiplin dan sportif.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Allen, P. T. A. D. “Letter of St Ignatius of Antioch to St Polycarp.” Life of the Spirit (1946-1964) 15.172 (1960).

Chadwick, Henry. “Augustine of Hippo.” The Encyclopedia of Christianity, ed. Erwin Fahlbusch et al., vol. 1. (Michigan: Eerdmans, 1999).

Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Paedagogus, Buku 2, Bab 2. (http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.html).

Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Paedagogus, Buku 3, Bab 12. (http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.html).

Dykstra, Chris. “Theology of Sport: A Necessary Conversation.” Journal of Youth Ministry, vol. 17, no. 2. (2019).

Ellis, Robert. The Games People Play. (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2014).

Frame, John M. The Doctrine of the Christian Life. (New Jersey: P&R Publishing, 2008).

Franklin, Tiffany and John Nyland. “The importance of developing athletic training leadership behaviors.” Athletic Training Education Journal 15.4. (2020).

Goheen, Michael dan Craig Bartholomew. Living at the Crossroads: An Introduction to Christian Worldview. (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2008).

Gold, Barbara K. Perpetua: Athlete of God. Oxford University Press, 2018. Lihat juga Goodine, Elizabeth A., and Matthew W. Mitchell. “The Persuasiveness of a Woman: The Mistranslation and Misinterpretation of Eusebius’ Historia Ecclesiastica 5.1. 41.” Journal of Early Christian Studies 13.1 (2005).

Grudem, Wayne. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. (Michigan: Zondervan, 1994).

---. Systematic Theology, Second Edition: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Academic, 2020).

Heisey, K. Sport Outreach and Christian Ministry. (2013).

Keen, Sam, et al. Theology of Play. (United Kingdom: Harper & Row, 1972).

Kurniawati, A, Problematika Aktivitas Pendidikan Jasmani dan Olahraga di Masa Pandemi. N.p. (Cahaya Smart Nusantara, 2022).

Lavay, Barry Wayne, et al. Positive Behavior Management in Physical Activity Settings. (United Kingdom: Human Kinetics, 2015).

Longenecker, Richard N. “The Acts of the Apostles.” In John-Acts. Vol. 9 of The Expositor's Bible Commentary. 12 vols. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein dan J. D. Douglas. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1981).

Mangina, Joseph. “John Calvin on the Body and Sport.” The Reformed Journal, vol 56, no. 10 (2006).

Moltmann, Jürgen. Theology of Play, trans. Reinhard Ulrich. (New York: Harper & Row, 1972).

---. The Spirit of Life: A Universal Affirmation. Translated by Margaret Kohl. (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992).

“Physical activity.” World Health Organization. (https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/physical-activity). Diakses pada 2 Maret 2023.

Rankin, David. “Clement of Alexandria on Spiritual Athletics”. Vigiliae Christianae, Vol. 62, No. 2 (May, 2008). hlm. 113-132. Lihat juga Spiegel, James S. “Cultivating self-control: Foundations and methods in the Christian theological tradition.” Journal of Spiritual Formation and Soul Care 13.2 (2020).

Richardson, Cyril. Terj. “St. Ignatius of Antioch Letter to the to the Polycarp” (https://www.orderofstignatius.org/files/Letters/Ignatius_to_Polycarp.pdf). Diakses pada 1 Maret 2023.

Spaaij, Ramón. Understanding Football Hooliganism: A Comparison of Six Western European Football Clubs. Vol. 9056294458 Amsterdam University Press, (2006).

Sponheim, Paul R. ‘Paradigm Change in Theology: A Symposium for the Future,’ ed. Hans Küng and David Tracy New York. Theology Today (Princeton, N.J.), vol. 47, no. 1. (New York: SAGE Publications, 1990). https://doi.org10.1177/004057369004700116.

Taylor, Elias L. “The Christian Marathoner: Athletic References in Paul’s Epistles”, Journal of Arts & Humanities, (2015), Vol. 04, No. 11: 01-18.

Treat, Jeremy R. “More than a Game: A Theology of Sport”, Themelios, Volume 40, Issue 3. N.p. (Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2015).

Weir, Stuart. ‘Competition as Relationship: Sport as a Mutual Quest for Excellence’. The Image of God in the Human Body: Essays on Christianity and Sports, ed. Donald Deardorff and John White. (2008).

White, J. ‘Idols in the Stadium: Sport as an “Idol Factory”’. The Image of God in the Human Body: Essays on Christianity and Sports, ed. D. Deardorff and I. I. White. (Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2008).

Witherington III, Ben. The Rest of Life: Rest, Play, Eating, Studying, Sex from a Kingdom Perspective. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2012).

Downloads

Published

2023-04-30

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)